What is a lower back pain?

(LBP) Lower back pain which is also known as lumbago or lumbar spine a common musculoskeletal symptom that involves the disorder of muscles and bones of the back. It can be seen affected in similar proportions in all cultures, interferes with work performance and quality of life is the most reason for every medical consultations and treatment. Almost 40% to 80% of adults faces lower back pain at some stage of lifetimes.

lower back pian

The classification of lower back pain can be done by the duration. If the pain lasts for less than 6 weeks than it can be said as ACUTE if it lasts for 6 to 12 weeks than it can be said as SUB-CHRONIC or if the pain lasts for more than 12 weeks then it can be said as CHRONIC or PERSISTENT. Further, it can be also classified underlying reason as either mechanical, non-mechanical or referred pain.

lbp physiopoint

Lower back pain occurs due to pain in the lower back area which can relate to problems with the lumbar spine, the ligaments around the spine and discs, the discs between the vertebrae, muscles of the low back, the spinal cord and nerves, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, or we can say due to the skin covering the lumbar area.

Lower back pain is equally affected to both the male and female which leads to constant ache to a sudden one, intensity from a dull, also the sharp sensation which leaves the person incapacitated.


Lower back pain affects almost every second person.  It doesn’t start with a prior warning and not for a parent reason. Mostly, the pain can last from a few days to many weeks and up to many months if proper treatment and consultations are provided.

  • After any activity, sudden movement, or lifting any heavy object severe or aching pain in the lower back starts.
  • Stiffness, muscles spasms, and cramping.
  • Quickly or gradually, the pain may occur in back and sometimes in buttock also.
  • The pain in the hip region which starts gradually and gets worse with the passage of time.
  • On touching local soreness can be felt.
  • One could also try to avoid walking or standing due to severe pain.
  • Some others reasons of back pain are disc degeneration, disc herniation, Infection (tuberculosis) and many others

symptoms lbp physiopoint


Lower back pain occurs due to the variety of other diseases. Thus there are many reasons responsible for the lower back pain. So here we can see a list of many possible causes which are mostly responsible for the same.

  • The foremost reason for the musculoskeletal lower back pain is twisting awkwardly, wrong lifting techniques.
  • The symptoms of nerve impingement where a nerve is touched are produced by Nerve root syndromes, often due to a bulging or herniation of disc between the lower back bones.
  • A Slipped or Herniated disc occurs when the cartilage surrounding the disc pushes against the nerve roots or spinal cord. Due to which the cushion that sits between the spinal vertebrae is pushed beyond its normal position. This pain mostly lasts for 72 hours.
  • In women, the pain in the lower back can also occur due to an infection of the reproductive organ which is known as PID i.e., Pelvic Inflammatory Disease which is marked especially during urination or sex.
  • Also, pain due to Premenstrual Syndrome which starts 5 to 11 days before menstruation and normally goes away once menstruation begins.
  • During Pregnancy back pain, due to the change in body posture and the increased strain on the lower back and other physical changes affect the lower back and raises the pain.
  • Due to over activity the ligaments and muscles in the back can be stretched or can be torn. The symptoms such as stiffness and pain in the lower back, as well as muscle spasms, can be diagnosed.
  • When the spinal column narrows, putting pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerves, Spinal Stenosis occurs. It happens due to degeneration of the disc between the vertebrae. Usually, the symptoms are cramping, numbness, and weakness.
  • The Abnormal Spine Curvatures are congenital conditions and mostly diagnosed in children and teenagers. It places pressure on the vertebrae, ligaments, muscles, and tendons, which causing poor posture and pain.
  • Spinal Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disorder that may lead to loss of normal spine structure and function. The rate of generation and location is individual, where age is a primary cause.
  • Arthritis is a degenerative disease in which we can diagnose the spinal vertebrae degeneration and inflammation of cartilage and ligaments. Symptoms such as stiffness of spine, ligaments, and joints, the restrictive range of motion (ROM).
  • The problem in kidney and bladder, severe infections of the bladder can also the lower back pain.
  • Pain can also occur due to Endometriosis. It is a painful condition where cells from the uterus grow in other parts of the body.
  • Lower back pain can be observed due to Cancer.
  • There is a number of such situation which causes lower back pain, such as tenderness and long-term pain in the joints, tendons, and muscles, known as Fibromyalgia. Ovarian cysts where a fluid-filled growth on the inside or outside of an ovary. Uterine Fibroids – non – cancerous tumors in the uterus.


-The treatment of the patient can be started only knowing the history of lower back pain. Before suggesting any kind of tests, some questions are to be answered by the patient. Such as


* Since when did the back pain start?

* In which part or particular area you feeling pain?

* Have you ever had any kind of injury at back in the past?

* Have you ever been treated for lower back pain previously?

* Was treatment effective?

* What makes your pain much more painful?

* Do you ever experience irritation during urination?

Your doctor often asks you about other problems.


To perform your physical examination and to localize the cause of your back pain, he may order some number of tests. Some tests which doctor would ask for:

  • Back pain tests.
  • Video: Back pain EMG Test.
  • X-rays of your lumbar spine which will let you know about the damage to your bones.
  • xray back
  • MRI i.e, magnetic resonance imaging which uses radio frequency and magnetic field to create an image of organs, bones, and soft tissues.
  • CT or CAT scans show a brief X-rays that give a better image of the anatomy of the bones.


After knowing about your low back pain, there are certain changes you can do to provide short-term relief.

  • To prevent stiffness and relieve muscle spasms, it is important to stay active and walk comfortably instead of staying in bed for a long time.
  • To improve pain and function during the first 48 hours, some easy options are heat wheat bags and hot water bottles. One should test the heat before its application.
  • During the early stages of back pain, there comes the time when you need to be lying or sitting down. Especially, while sleeping allow the most comfortable position. Also can place a pillow under the knees.
  • One should stay positive as it is a disabling and distressing condition but it is a vital thing to remember that with the proper treatment you will regain normal, pain-free movement.


There are many kinds of treatments provided by Physiotherapist to patients:

  • Exercises:- Some exercises can be beneficial for lower back pain. Some of them are-
  • Partial Crunches
  • Wall Sits
  • Press-Up Back Extensions
  • Bird Dog
  • Bridging
  • Aerobic Exercises
  • Some Pilates Moves
  • Decompression Breathing
  • Founder To forwarding Fold
  • Adductor-Assisted Back Extension
  • Eight-Point Plank
  • Woodpecker
  • Stretches:- Some lower back stretches to increase movement-
  • Pelvic Tilt Stretch
  • Side Knee Drop- Low Back Stretch
  • Prone Press Up- On Hands ( Or Elbow) Or Standing
  • Cat / Horse Back Stretch
  • Knees-To-Chest Back Stretch
  • Hamstring Stretch
  • Prayer Pose Back Stretch
  • Electrical Stimulation:- (TENS) Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. TENS enables to reduce back pain intensity by stimulating the underlying nerves.
  • Massage:- To relieve chronic back pain
  • Heat therapy and Ice packs.

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